Dysmenorrhea in simple terms means the pain and cramps experienced by women, during their periods or when they menstruate. Slight pain during periods is a natural and physiological phenomenon as the muscular walls of the uterus contract and relax in certain manner to slough out the content from the uterus.
When the menstrual pain exceeds the tolerance level of a woman and start interfering in her daily chores or other physical activities, it is termed as dysmenorrhea. Women may experience different intensity of pains, depending upon the underlying pathology, and may be accompanied by other accessory symptoms.
The causes of dysmenorrhea depend upon what type of dysmenorrhea a woman is facing. Broadly dysmenorrhea is classified into primary and secondary dysmenorrhea
- Primary dysmenorrhea- In primary dysmenorrhea there is no specific pathology inside the body, but it is caused due to increased amount of a type of hormone called prostaglandins, which result into stronger contraction of muscles of the uterus than normal, resulting into dysmenorrhea.
- Secondary dysmenorrhea- They are caused due to some underlying pathology in the body, related to reproductive organs, like
*Endometriosis- In this, the endometrial cells that line the endometrium of the uterus move to other parts of the pelvis and start behaving differently, causing severe pain during the periods.
*Fibroids- Fibroids are benign tumours present inside the walls of the uterus and are influenced by the sex hormones. They may also result in excess flow of menstrual blood with dysmenorrhea.
*Adenomyosis- In this, the endometrial cells start growing inside the muscles of the uterus and may result into dysmenorrhea. It is a serious condition, which is difficult to treat.
*Pelvic inflammatory disease- Inflammation caused in the female reproductive organs due to sexually transmitted bacterias may also cause dysmenorrhea.
*Cervical stenosis- In some women the opening of the cervix is very small, leading to pressure inside the uterus due to impeded menstrual flow, which again causes dysmenorrhea.
Sign and symptoms
Dysmenorrhea represents typically in the form of pain in the lower abdomen, which may spread to groins, lower back and legs. Pain may start at the time of commencement of menses or a day or two before that. In most of the cases the first 24 hours of the pain is most debilitating, then the intensity may fall as the flow decreases in following days.
Some other accessory symptoms that may be present with dysmenorrhea are
- Diarrhoea or constipation
- Nausea and vomiting
- Tender breasts and swollen abdomen
- Episodic acne and pimples before or during the periods
- Gastric complaints
Doctor will have to look into the history of the problem to diagnose the cause of the disease. Gynaecologist may ask for pelvic examination to look for any abnormalities in the reproductive organs or signs of infection.
Doctor may suggest for some diagnostic tests like ultrasound, imaging tests like CT scan, MRI or laparoscopy to confirm for any suspected disorder.
Homeopathic medicines are very effective in managing the symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Medicines prescribed on holistic approach, meaning, on the individualised basis, in which the medicines are chosen according to individual symptoms can cure the disease from their roots.
Secondary dysmenorrhea present as a consequence of some other medical conditions like endometriosis, PID, or fibroids can also be successfully treated with homeopathic medicines. Patients can consult homoeopathy specialist doctor for any female complaint. Homeopathic medicines treat dysmenorrhea in most natural way and there is no requirement of giving artificial hormones to cure the underlying medical conditions. If a patient seeks the treatment of any female complaint including primary or secondary dysmenorrhea should take advice from homeopathy specialist doctor for complete and permanent resolution of symptoms.